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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:myindustrial.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)由主(zhu)体(ti)、驱(qu)动(dong)系统(tong)和(he)(he)控(kong)制系统(tong)三(san)个(ge)基本部(bu)分(fen)(fen)组成(cheng)(cheng)。按(an)机(ji)器(qi)人(ren)结(jie)构(gou)分(fen)(fen)类为直角坐(zuo)标型,机(ji)械手(shou)沿二维直角坐(zuo)标系移动(dong)。主(zhu)体(ti)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)通常采用龙门式(shi)结(jie)构(gou),由y向(xiang)横梁与导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕、十字滑(hua)座、立柱、过渡(du)连接(jie)板和(he)(he)基座等部(bu)分(fen)(fen)组成(cheng)(cheng),z向(xiang)的直线(xian)运动(dong)皆(jie)为交流伺服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)通过蜗轮减速(su)器(qi)驱(qu)动(dong)齿(chi)(chi)轮与y向(xiang)横梁、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕上固(gu)定的齿(chi)(chi)条(tiao)作滚动(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)移动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)沿导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)快速(su)运动(dong)。移动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)为质(zhi)量较轻(qing)的十字滑(hua)座和(he)(he)z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕,滑(hua)枕采用由铝合金拉制的型材(cai)。横梁采用方钢型材(cai),在横梁上安装有导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)和(he)(he)齿(chi)(chi)条(tiao),通过滚轮与导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)接(jie)触(chu),整(zheng)个(ge)机(ji)械手(shou)都悬(xuan)挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)(su)(su)时间(jian)短(duan)。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较(jiao)重的(de)(de)工件(jian)时,惯(guan)量(liang)(liang)大,因(yin)此,伺服驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)电机(ji)要有(you)足(zu)够(gou)的(de)(de)驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)和制(zhi)动(dong)的(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元(yuan)件(jian)也要有(you)足(zu)够(gou)的(de)(de)刚(gang)度(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)。只有(you)这样(yang),才能(neng)使伺服电动(dong)机(ji)满足(zu)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)高响应、高刚(gang)度(du)(du)及高精(jing)度(du)(du)要求。在(zai)选(xuan)择合适伺服电动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)情况下,根据物料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)距(ju)离(li)和运(yun)(yun)行(xing)节(jie)拍,计算(suan)出伺服系(xi)统的(de)(de)位移和轨迹,对(dui)(dui)驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)器PID参数进行(xing)动(dong)态调整。桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)根据接收到的(de)(de)位移、速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)指令(ling),经变(bian)化、放大并调整处理后,传递给(ji)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)过光纤传感器对(dui)(dui)运(yun)(yun)行(xing)状态进行(xing)实时检测,在(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)搬(ban)运(yun)(yun)过程中,运(yun)(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)在(zai)极(ji)短(duan)的(de)(de)时间(jian)内到达给(ji)定(ding)的(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du),并能(neng)在(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)行(xing)程中瞬间(jian)准(zhun)停,通(tong)过高分(fen)辩率(lv)绝对(dui)(dui)式编码器的(de)(de)插补运(yun)(yun)算(suan),控制(zhi)机(ji)械(xie)误差和测量(liang)(liang)误差对(dui)(dui)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)影(ying)响。由(you)于被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)工件(jian)不同,质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)也不同,因(yin)此,桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)有(you)多(duo)种规格和系(xi)列。在(zai)选(xuan)择时,根据被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工件(jian)的(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang),加(jia)工的(de)(de)节(jie)拍来(lai)选(xuan)取。但机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)(shou)臂,夹持方(fang)(fang)式,则根据被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工件(jian)的(de)(de)形状、结(jie)构(gou)及机(ji)床夹具定(ding)夹方(fang)(fang)式来(lai)设计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)能够借助可(ke)编程序来(lai)处(chu)理和执行(xing)任务(wu)。机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)主要由手(shou)图 1 臂、回(hui)转(zhuan)装(zhuang)置、运动部件(jian)(jian)(jian)及(ji)驱(qu)动部件(jian)(jian)(jian)组成(cheng)(cheng)。通过对工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)外形或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)上定(ding)位(wei)支撑点定(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例如,在汽车(che)发动机(ji)(ji)加工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)性自动线物(wu)流输送中,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)会(hui)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)缸体(ti)、缸盖、曲轴等(deng)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)外形特点,选(xuan)取(qu)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方(fang)式(shi)。柔(rou)性机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上采(cai)用气(qi)缸和电机(ji)(ji)进(jin)行(xing)定(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)切换(huan)(huan)驱(qu)动,一(yi)套机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)可(ke)完成(cheng)(cheng)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)可(ke)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)产品(pin)质量(liang)和外形的(de)(de)大小采(cai)用系列(lie)化设计,机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上的(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)安(an)装(zhuang)方(fang)式(shi)相同(tong)(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)(tong)系列(lie)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只需切换(huan)(huan)相应的(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)即可(ke),满足(zu)快(kuai)速切换(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)需要。这样,当加工(gong)(gong)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只须变换(huan)(huan)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)就可(ke)实(shi)现,提高了桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)柔(rou)性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手(shou)输送装(zhuang)置的发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan),经历了(le)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就目前而(er)言, 在国内二(er)者均有之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分为(wei)棘轮棘爪(zhua)、摆杆(gan)、抬起步伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等(deng)形式(shi)。随(sui)着加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan),由(you)其(qi)(qi)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步替代组(zu)(zu)合(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它(ta)以适应小批量多(duo)(duo)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到(dao)市(shi)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛(fan)认可,并(bing)称其(qi)(qi)为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)种(zhong)以加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为(wei)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可谓是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形式(shi)以刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou))并(bing)存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)全(quan)部(bu)由(you)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng),这(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如(ru)主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)配以桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)敏(min)捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏(min)捷(jie)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)分。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距可根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随(sui)意改变,自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照(zhao)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距或(huo)步距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也(ye)可根据生产节拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)改变。而(er)真正体现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi),当(dang)被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改变后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分不(bu)会不(bu)适应而(er)全(quan)部(bu)更(geng)换,只(zhi)要(yao)改变输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)局部(bu)结构即(ji)可。采用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)一(yi)。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)才(cai)在当(dang)今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多(duo)(duo)地被采用(yong)(yong),使整个生产过(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)信息(xi)流(liu)系统(tong)进行(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),所需各(ge)种(zhong)信息(xi)收(shou)集(ji)、处理(li)、反馈,并(bing)通过(guo)电子计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其(qi)(qi)他(ta)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气(qi)压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实(shi)行(xing)分级控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。信息(xi)流(liu)系统(tong)分为(wei)由(you)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)央管理(li)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)以及信息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)。目前,汽(qi)车(che)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)业中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸(gang)(gang)体、缸(gang)(gang)盖及曲(qu)轴等(deng)大(da)批量关(guan)键零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)都采用(yong)(yong)了(le)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距(ju)

当下,我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展很快,技(ji)术(shu)水平(ping)有了(le)很大(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)变(bian)得(de)越来(lai)越小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外相比已经没有什么差距(ju)。特别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)科技(ji)专项的(de)(de)(de)开展,为(wei)我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档次上(shang)水平(ping)提高了(le)加速度,成(cheng)绩显而(er)易(yi)见。加工(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年发展的(de)(de)(de)特别快,但(dan)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)水平(ping)和档次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)还很明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较为(wei)普遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)却为(wei)数(shu)不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)生产市场所采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口。如无锡柴油(you)发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)体(ti)缸(gang)盖柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由(you)德(de)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)BZ800加工(gong)中心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具(ju)、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)。输(shu)(shu)(shu)送采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)空中桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送。仅以汽(qi)车(che)制造(zao)业而(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)生产的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)屈指可数(shu)。大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团和沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团等生产出了(le)该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并在生产实际(ji)中得(de)到了(le)应用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)。图(tu)4是大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团生产的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体(ti)加工(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加工(gong)两种缸(gang)体(ti),分别为(wei)四缸(gang)和六缸(gang),其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送采用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)空中桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形(xing)式。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两个,一个上(shang)料,一个下料。它的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong),标志(zhi)着我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产由(you)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水准迈进。

上述提及(ji)的(de)(de)只是(shi)数(shu)量上的(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)原因还(hai)是(shi)国产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)技术(shu)水平(ping)与国外(wai)(wai)(wai)有着一定的(de)(de)差距。柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)自动(dong)线(xian)(xian)采(cai)用的(de)(de)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou),也(ye)是(shi)从(cong)国外(wai)(wai)(wai)进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)。那时,国内(nei)还(hai)没有专门(men)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)厂家(jia)。如今(jin),国内(nei)巨一等一些(xie)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)厂家(jia)的(de)(de)涌出,为国产(chan)(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)自动(dong)线(xian)(xian)带来了希望,进而(er)缩(suo)小了与国外(wai)(wai)(wai)在生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)差距,国产(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)在柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)自动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)应用也(ye)越来越多,从(cong)而(er)打破国产(chan)(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)(wai)(wai)国人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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